Most vaccines in human testing require two shots for effectiveness, and developers are still unsure if they will prevent infections. Scientists are hoping to develop a better immune response to respiratory vaccines that directly target the invading airways cells.
Under development in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Hong Kong, the alternative to traditional sprays, sprays, and inhaled vaccines can play an important role in helping society escape sanctions that have devastated economies and everyday life. One of their goals is to stop the growth of germs in the nose, a point from which it can spread to other parts of the body and to other people.
Francis Lund of the University of Alabama, working on early-stage antidote vaccines with Biotech UltimateMune Inc., University of Alabama, Birmingham, said: “Local immunization issues are important. “Vaccines that can be given to produce will have some benefits from vaccines that are given systemically.”
Most early vaccine developers focus on a known route – vaccine – which is seen as the fastest way to save the world from disease. Respiratory vaccine manufacturers are counting on some unique features of the lungs, nose and throat, which are bound with mucus. This tissue contains high levels of immunodeficiency proteins, called IgA, which provide better protection against respiratory viruses.
Activating immunocompromised weapons, they form theoretically, can protect the deepest areas of the lungs where stork-cov-2 does the most damage. They can also improve the chances of stopping the transmission of vaccines.
“The first generation of vaccines will probably protect a lot of people,” said Michael Diamond, an infectious disease specialist at the University of Washington in St. Louis. “But I think these are second- and third-generation vaccines – and maybe intranasal vaccines will be a major part of it – that are going to be necessary eventually. Otherwise, we will continue to have low community niti transactions. ”
In a study of rats in August, Hira and his team found that giving an experimental injection through the nose produces an immune response throughout the body; The approach was particularly effective in the nose and respiratory tract, preventing infection. Of India India Biotech And St. Louis-based Prexin Virologics acquired the rights to single-dose technology last month.
Vaccines that are inhaled or inhaled may have other practical benefits. They do not need needles, they may not need to be stored and shipped at low temperatures and health workers may need to handle them.
According to Alabama-based researcher Lund, “When you’re thinking about trying to get it around the world, if you don’t need to be vaccinated, your risk increases because people don’t like to be shot.” According to Alabama-based researchers. “But secondly, the level of expertise required for vaccination is quite different.”
Ultimimon, based in Gathersburg, Maryland, plans to enter the human test with a nasal vaccine in the fourth quarter after conducting a positive study in mice. Scientists at Oxford University, where a promising shot under development AstraZeneca The PLC was designed, and Imperial College London is also planning to study slightly different inhaled vaccines.
Experimental injections in the UK will be provided through a mouthpiece in an aerosol, similar to some asthma treatments. Imperial researchers point to evidence that nasal sprays can infect people with influenza vaccines and help reduce transmission; They are eager to explore if it is for the Saras-Cove-2 as well. AstraZeneca Fluimist nasal spray vaccine.
According to Robin Shatok, an infectious disease specialist at Imperial College, data from a study of inhaled Oxford vaccines could come in early New Year, with Imperial results expected in the second quarter.
“We don’t know if it will work out well, but if it does, it could be very important,” he said in an interview.
Imperial College has been advancing the study of the covid vaccine using RNA technology in recent months, which will be provided by conventional shots, and plans to increase its trials to 20,000 by the end of the year. Oxford, at the forefront of global research into vaccines, is in the final stages of one-shot tests that use a harmless virus to transmit the genetic material of germs into cells to produce an immune response. Does. Both techniques may be suitable for breathing, Shtok said.
“It’s a virus that spreads through your respiratory tract, so if you want a vaccine that really prevents infection and subsequent prevention, you’ll want to get an antibody reaction in your nose, in your lungs,” said Shtok. Be. ” “The most effective way to motivate it is by injecting that pathway.”
Researchers in Hong Kong are trying to get an intranasal vaccine that will offer flu and Covid-19 protection at the same time. The first round of human trials will begin next month, said Yoon Kovok-Young, chair of infectious diseases at the University of Hong Kong. Microbiology.
He said the desire was to come up with a “vaccine of choice” as the world prepares for the first wave of products.
Questions about the immunization of nasal vaccines remain unresolved, and are at an early stage. Despite the advantages, delivery devices are more complex, according to Nick Jackson, head of programs and technology at the Coalition for Epidemic Preparation Innovations.
“Needles and syringes work great,” he said.
However, the researchers said that targeting the airway could pay off. Jason said the Oslo-based CEPI has funded the Hong Kong project and is open to further investment in vaccines that are taking the traditional approach in an effort to supply billions of doses to every corner of the globe.
“Whether it’s our vaccine or someone else who goes through an interstate that actually manages to stop the communication and break the epidemic, I take off my hat,” Diamond said. “If we contribute by forcing or pushing these companies to think of an alternative path to what could be a successful platform, we have done our job.”