Ripples in the fabric of space and time offers new clues to the shape of black holes

Ripples in the fabric of space and time offers new clues to the shape of black holes

Black holes are one of the most fascinating things in the universe. The gravity on their surface, known as the “direction of events”, is so strong that even light cannot escape them. Generally, black holes are quiet, swallowing silent creatures that get close to anything; However, when two black holes collide and merge, they produce the most destructive event in the universe: in a fraction of a second, a high-wing Black hole Is produced and releases in large quantities as it is established in its final form. This phenomenon gives astronomers a unique opportunity to see rapidly changing black holes and to see gravity in its most extreme form.

Although a collision with a black hole does not produce light, astronomers can follow the discovery. Gravitational waves – Waves in the fabric of space and time – that make them bounce. Scientists speculate that after a collision, the behavior of a surviving black hole is key to understanding gravity and should be encoded in the extracted gravitational waves.

Black hole corp

Illustration of the artist’s black hole group. Credit: C. Evans; Jesse Bustillo

In the article published in Communication physics (Nature), Ozgrav alumni Prof. A team of scientists led by Juan Calderin Bustillo – now at the Galician Institute of Physics (Santiago de Compostela, Spain) – has unveiled how serious Encod the shape of the merging of black holes when they are finally settled.

Christopher Evans, a graduate student and co-author of the Georgia Institute of Technology (USA), says: . We have discovered that these signals are much richer and more complex than normal thinking, which allows us to learn more about the ultimate transformation of the ultimate black hole. ”

Black hole merging phase

First, the two black holes orbit each other, gradually approaching each other during the inspiration phase. The other two black holes merge to form a distorted black hole. Finally, the black hole reaches its final form. B: Frequency of gravitational-wave signals observed from the top of the collision and from different positions on the left as a function of time. The first signal represents the normal “face” signal, in which the frequency increases with time. The other three indicate that after the collision (at T = 0) the frequency decreases and re-stands, creating a second crack. Credit: c. Evans, if. Calderon Bustilo

Severity waves colliding with black holes are very common signals known as “chips”. As the two black holes move closer to each other, they emit increasing frequency and amplitude, indicating the speed and circumference of the bit rabbit. According to Professor Calderon Bustillo, “As the two black holes approach faster and faster, the signal’s pitch and amplitude increase. This principle is consistent with all gravitational wave observations so far when studying collisions from the top.

However, the study found that something is very different if the collision is viewed from the “equator” of the final black hole. Prof. Calderon Bustillo explains, “When we saw a black hole from their equatorial region, we found that the final black hole conducts another complex signal, with a pitch that goes up shortly before it dies.” “In other words, black holes actually rupture at times.”

The shape of the remaining black hole after the collision

Details of the shape of the remaining black hole after the collision of the black hole, with a ‘chestnut shape’. The area of ​​the strong gravitational-wave exhaust (in yellow) group near its planet. This black hole spin makes a point of view for all the observers around you. Credit: c. Evans, if. Calderon Bustilo

The team discovered that this is related to the shape of the final black hole, which acts like a kind of gravitational-wave lighthouse: The final black hole looks like this at first. Bustillo says that one part of the chest, which is round on one side and wide, is pure on the other side. “It turns out that a black hole conducts more intense gravitational waves than most of its rotating fields, which revolve around its orbits. This is because the remaining black holes are also rotating and are pointed at the back and back of all observers, creating multiple chips. “

Co-author Prof. Pablo Laguna, a former chair of the School of Physics at Georgia Tech and now a professor at the University of Texas at Austin, pointed out that “while a link between gravitational waves and the behavior of the final black hole has long been speculated. That is, our study provides the first clear example of this type of relationship. “

Reference: 8 October 2020, Communication physics.
DOI: 10.1038 / s42005-020-00446-7

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Raven Weber

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