Gaia’s new detailed data of over 1.8 billion stars

Gaia's new detailed data of over 1.8 billion stars

Gaia’s best speed for the next 400,000 years. The stars are in constant motion. For the human eye this movement – known as precise motion – is impractical, but Gaia is measuring it more and more accurately. The paths in this figure show how 40,000 stars, located within 100 parsis (326 light years) of the entire solar system, will cross the sky in the next 400,000 years. These correct moves are released as part of Gaia Early Data Release 3 (Gaia EDR3). They are twice as accurate as the appropriate moves released in the previous Gaia DR2. The increase in accuracy is due to the fact that Gaia has now measured the stars more often and with longer intervals. This represents a major improvement in Gaia EDR3 over Gaia DD2. Credit: ESA / Gaia / DPAC; CC By-SA 3.0 IGO. Approval: a. Bra, N, S. Jordan, T. Rogers, ex. Luri, e. Masana, t. Prousty and a. Motinho.

This points to significant changes in the history of the motion of stars outside our galaxy Galaxy. These and other equally interesting results came from a set of papers demonstrating the quality of ESA’s Gaia Early Third Data Release (EDR3), which was released on December 3, 2020.

Astronomers at the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) looked at the Milky Way’s past evidence by looking at the stars in the direction of the galaxy’s ‘anticanter’. It is in the opposite direction to the sky from the center of the galaxy.

The results at Anticenter come from one of four “demonstration letters” issued with Gaia’s figures. Other Gaia data used to provide a broad spectrum for the census of surrounding stars, take the form of a bit rabbit of the solar system around the center of the galaxy and examine probe structures in two nearby galaxies. The papers are designed to highlight the improvement and quality of the newly published data.

Early data release of Gaia in number 3

Early data of Gaia in numbers released. Credit: ESA; By CC-SA 3.0 IGO.

What’s new in EDR3?

The Gaia EDR 3 contains detailed information on more than 1.8 billion resources discovered by the Gaia spacecraft. This represents an increase of over 100 million resources compared to the previous release (Gaia DR2), which was made public in April 2018. Gaia EDR 3 also has color information of about 1.5 billion resources, an increase of 200 million resources from Gaia DR2. . In addition to other sources, General Accuracy And measurement accuracy is also improved.

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“The new Gaia data promises to be a treasure trove for astronomers,” said Jose de Bruyne, ESA’s Gaia Deputy Project Scientist.

Density of stars from Gaia's initial data release 3

More than 1.8 billion stars have been used to create this whole map of the sky. It shows the total density of stars observed by ESA’s Gaia Satellite and has been released as part of Gaia’s Early Data Release 3 (Gaia EDR3). Bright areas indicate low density of stars, while dark areas meet the patches of the sky where fewer stars are visible. In contrast to the brightness map in color that is magnified by the brightest and most massive stars, this view shows the distribution of all the stars, including the faint and distant. The glowing horizontal structure that dominates the image is the plane of the galaxy. It is a flat disk that hosts many of the stars in our galaxy. The bulge in the center of the image is around the center of the galaxy. Credit: ESA / Gaia / DPAC; By CC-SA 3.0 IGO. Approval: a. Motinho and M. Barros

To the galactic anticancer

Gaia’s new data allows astronomers to determine the different populations of old and young stars just outside our galaxy – the galactic anticancer. Computer models predict that the disks of the airwaves will grow larger over time and new stars will be born. The new data allows us to look at the remains of an ancient disk 10 billion years old and therefore determines its small size compared to the current disk size of the Milky Way.

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The new data from these outer regions also strengthens the evidence for another major galaxy event recently.

Figures show that the outer regions of the disk contain a portion of the stars moving slowly down the spacecraft on our galaxy, and a portion of the fast moving stars below the spacecraft moving upwards. . This unusual pattern was not previously expected. This may be the result of a collision between the Milky Way galaxy and the galaxy Mercury that happened recently in our galaxy.

The Sagittarius Mercury galaxy contains millions of stars and is currently in the process of being sterilized by air. It wasn’t the last direct hit for our galaxy, but it was enough that its gravity would be as disturbing as throwing some of the stars in our galaxy into the water.

Gaia's view of galaxies near the Milky Way

Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC, respectively) are two dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way. This image shows the optimal density of satellite galaxies as Gaia observed in her Early Data Release 3, which was released on December 3, 2020. It is made up of layers of red, green and blue, most of which look for older, middle age and younger stars respectively. Credit: ESA / Gaia / DPAC; By CC-SA 3.0 IGO. Approval: L. Chemin; X Luri et al (2020)

Using Gaia DR2, DPAC members had already discovered a microscopic movement in the movement of millions of stars that suggested the effects of a collision with a bow 300 to 900 million years ago. Now, using Gaia EDR3, they have found more evidence that points to its drastic effects on the disks of our galaxy’s stars.

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Teresa Antoza of the University of Barcelona, ​​Spain, says: “The patterns of movement in disc stars are very different from those used in this analysis by a DPAC collaborator. Although the role of Sagittarius Mercury in the galaxy is still debated in some parts, Teresa says, “it could be a good candidate for all of these messes, as other writers’ simulations show.”

Sky color from Gaia's Early Data Release 3

More than 1.8 billion stars have been used to create this whole map of the sky. It shows the total brightness and color of the stars as seen by ESA’s Gaia Satellite and has been released as part of Gaia’s Early Data Release 3 (Gaia EDR3).
Bright areas represent the density of bright stars, while dark areas meet the patches of the sky where low and faint stars are seen. The color of the image is obtained by combining the total amount of light with the amount of blue and red light recorded by Gaia in each patch of the sky. The glowing horizontal structure that dominates the image is the plane of our Milky Way galaxy. It appears to be a flattened disk containing many of the galaxy’s stars. In the center of the image, the galactic center appears bright, and scattered with stars. Credit: ESA / Gaia / DPAC; By CC-SA 3.0 IGO. Approval: a. Motinho.

Measuring the bit rabbit of the solar system

The history of the galaxy is not the only result of the Gaia EDR3 demonstration papers. DPAC members across Europe have done more to demonstrate the extreme fidelity of statistics and the unique potential of unlimited scientific research.

In one paper, Gaia allows scientists to measure the acceleration of the solar system in relation to the rest of the frame structure of the universe. Using the visible motives of extremely distant galaxies, the velocity of the solar system is measured to change by 0.23 nm / sk per second. Due to this small acceleration, the tractor of the solar system is separated by a diameter of one Atom Every second, and in a year it increases by about 115 kilometers. The acceleration measured by Gaia shows a good compromise with theoretical expectations and provides the first measurement of the bit orbit of the solar system around the galaxy in the history of optical astronomy.

A new Swagati census

Gaia EDR 3 also allows for a new census of stars in the solar system. The Gaia catalog of nearby stars contains 331,312 objects, which are estimated to be 92 percent of the stars within 100 parsis (326 light years) of the Sun. The last census of the solar system, called the Glacier Catalog of nearby stars, was conducted in 1957. It initially had only 915 objects, but in 1991 3803 celestial objects were updated. It was limited to a distance of 82 light-years: Gaia’s census reaches four times farther and contains 100 times more stars. It also provides space, speed and brightness measurements which are more accurate commands than the old figures.

Bridge of stars

Figures from Gaia’s Early Data Release 3 show how stars are being pulled from the Small Magellanic Cloud, and moving to the adjacent Large Magellanic Cloud, forming a wire bridge through space. Credit: ESA / Gaia / DPAC; By CC-SA 3.0 IGO. Approval: S. Jordan, T. Sagrist, ex. Luri et al (2020).

Beyond the airwaves

The fourth demonstration paper analyzed the Magellanic clouds: two galaxies orbiting the sky. After measuring the motion of the stars of the larger Magellanic Cloud towards greater accuracy than before, the Gaia EDR3 clearly shows that the galaxy has a spiral structure. The data also resolves a series of stars that are pulled out of the Small Magellanic Cloud, and points to previously seen structures in the outer part of both galaxies.

At 12:00 CET on December 3, the data compiled by many of the Gaia DPAC Consortium’s scientists and engineers becomes public for anyone to view and learn. This is the first release of a two-part series; Complete Data Release 3 is planned for 2022.

“Gaia EDR 3 is the result of the hard work of everyone involved in the Gaia Mission. This is a very rich data set, and I look forward to the many discoveries that astronomers around the world will make with this resource, “says Timo Prousti, ESA’s Gaia Project Scientist. “And we haven’t done it yet; The other great figures will continue to measure from Gaia or Rabbit. ”

About the author: Raven Weber

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