Violent events leading up to the death of a star will probably wipe out any planet. New discovery made Jupiter-Size object may have arrived long after the star’s death.
An international team of using astronomers NASATransformation of Exoplanet Survey Satellite (T.And the retired Spitzer Space Telescope have revealed what could be the first intact planet to orbit closely. White dwarfThe dense remnant of a sun-like star is only 40% larger than Earth.
The Jupiter-sized object, called WD 1856B, is seven times larger than the white dwarf, named WD 1856 + 534. It revolves around this simple cycle every 34 hours, which is 60 times faster than Mercury orbiting our Sun.
How could a giant planet escape the violent process that turned its original star into a white dwarf? Astronomers came up with some ideas after discovering the Jupiter-shaped object WD 1856B. Credit: NASA /JPL-Caltech / NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center
Andrew Vanderberg, an assistant professor of astronomy at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said, “WD 1856B somehow got very close to its white dwarf and managed to stay in one piece. “The process of making a white ape destroys nearby planets, and anything that comes too close later is usually broken by the massive gravity of the star. We still have a lot of questions about how WD 1856B got to where it is today without any popularity. “
A paper on the system, led by Vanderberg and published by several NASA co-authors in the September 16, 2020 issue Nature.
TES monitors large moles in the sky, called sectors, for about a month at a time. This long-sightedness allows the satellite to explore beyond our solar system or the world, causing changes in the brightness of the star when the planet passes in front of or across its star.
The satellite observed WD 1856B about 80 light-years away in northern Tarika Draco. It revolves around a cool, quiet white dwarf that spans about 11,000 miles (18,000 kilometers), may be about 10 billion years old, and is a distant member of a triple star system.
When a sun-like star emerges from the fuel, it increases hundreds to thousands of times its original size, forming a cooler red giant star. Eventually, it expels the outer layers of its gases. Loses 80% of its mass. The rest of the warm core becomes a white monkey. Any nearby objects usually rotate during this process, and WD 1856B was incorporated into the system in its current bit rabbit. Vanderberg and his colleagues estimate that the possible planetary origin should be at least 50 times farther from its current location.
“We have known for a long time that after the birth of white dwarfs, distant small objects such as stars and comets can scatter inwards towards these stars. They are usually pulled by the white dwarfs with extreme severity and turned into debris disks, “said co-author Sie Xu, assistant astronomer at the International Gemini Observatory in Hilo, Hawaii, who is a member of the National Science Foundation. NOIRLab is a program. “That’s why I was so curious when Andrew told me about the system. We have seen Hint That planets can also scatter internally, but this seems to be the first time we have seen a planet that has made the whole journey uniform. “
The team suggests several scenarios that could push WD 1856B into an elliptical path around the white dwarf. This move would have become more circular over time as the gravity of the star pulled the object, creating many pairs that dissolved its b dissent.
“The most likely case involves several other Jupiter-sized corpses near the original bit Rabbit of WD 1856B,” said Juliet Baker, an associate author in Earth Sciences at Caltech in Pasadena. “Serious effects of objects that can easily cause instability for which you need to go inside a planet. But at the moment, we still have more principles than points. ”
Other possible scenarios include two more stars of the system, a gradual gravitational tug of G229-20A and B, and a flyby of a rogue star affecting the system. Vanderberg’s team thinks these and other explanations are unlikely because they need closely adjusted conditions to achieve the same effects as potentially large giant companion planets.
Planet-sized objects can occupy a giant planet, however, only from planets A few times wider than the earth A thousand times less than the mass of the Earth, the stars have other brown dwarfs, which draw the line between the planet and the star. Scientists usually turn to radial velocity monitoring to measure the mass of an object, which can indicate its structure and nature. This method works by studying how a circling object matches its star and changes the color of its light. But in this case, the white dwarf is so old that its light has become too faint and disappear for scientists to detect noticeable changes.
Instead, the team inspected the system in infrared using a spitzer, a few months before the telescope stopped. If WD 1856B was a brown dwarf or low-mass star, it would have its own infrared luminosity. This means that Spitzer would record much brighter traffic than if the object were a planet that stopped instead of emitting light. When the researchers compared the Spitzer data with luminous transit observations taken with the Gran Telescopio Canarius in the Canary Islands of Spain, they found no sensible difference. This, combined with more information about the age of the star and the system, led them to conclude that WD 1856B was probably no more than 14 times the size of a planet. Future research and observations may be able to confirm this conclusion.
Exploring a potential world revolving around white dwarfs led co-authors Lisa Kaltenagar, Vanderberg, and others to consider the effects of studying the atmosphere of a small rocky world under similar conditions. For example, suppose an Earth-sized planet was located around 1856 in a range of brim distances where water may be present on its surface. Using simple observations, the researchers point to NASA’s future James Webb Space Telescope One can only see five changes to detect water and carbon dioxide in the imaginary world.
The results of the census, led by Kaltenagar and Ryan MacDonald, were published at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Astrophysical Journal Letters And are available online available.
“Even more impressive is the fact that the web can detect gas combinations that could potentially signal biological activity in a world of at least 25,” said Kaltenagar, director of the Carl Sagan Institute at Cornell. Are in transit, ”said Kalnegar, director of the Carl Sagan Institute in Cornell. “WD 1856B suggests that the planets may avoid a history of white dwarf chaos. Under the right conditions, they can adapt the world to life Longer than the time predicted for the earth. Now we can explore many new exciting possibilities for the world by circling these dead ancestors. ”
There is currently no evidence to suggest that there are other worlds in the system, but it is possible that additional planets exist and have not yet been identified. They may have circles that are suggested by TSS to view an area or in a way that does not transit. The white dwarf is also so small that it is unlikely to cross distant planets into the system.
Reference: Andrew V. Vanderberg, Soul A. Rapport, Sii Zoo, Ian J. M. Crossfield, Juliet C. “A giant planetary candidate transmitting a white monkey” by Baker, Bruce Gary, Felipe Murgas, Simon Bluin, Thomas GK, Enrique Paley. Carl Melis, Brett M. Morris, Laura Kredberg, Virgin Gorgian, Caroline V. R. Bra, N, Rene Tronsgaard, Beth Klein, George R. Ricker, Roland K. Wanderspeck, David W. Latham, Sarah Seeger, Joshua N. Winn, John M. Jenkins, Fred C. Adams, Bijan Benek, David Berardo, Lars A. Buchawe, Douglas A. Caldwell, Jesse L. Christine, Karen A. Collins, Quincol d. Colin, Tansu Dylan, John Dotty, Alexandra E. Doyle, Diana Dragomir, Courtney Dressing, Patrick Dufour, Akihiko Fukui, Ana Glide, Natalia M. Guerrero, Xue Ing Guo, Kevin Heng, Andrea I. Henriquesan, Chelsea X Huang, Lisa Klutenerg, Steven J. L. Issued by Farisa Morales, Norio Narita, Joshua Paper, Mark E. Rose, Jeffrey C. Smith, Kevin G. Stasen and Liang Yu, September 16, 2020. Nature.
DOI: 10.1038 / s41586-020-2713-y
TESS is a NASA astrophysics explorer mission led and operated With Managed by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Cambridge, Massachusetts and in Greenbelt, Maryland. Additional participants include NASA’s Ames Research Center in Silicon Valley, California, North Grumman in Falls Church, Virginia, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts and MIT’s Lincoln. . More than a dozen universities, research institutes and observatories around the world are participating in the mission.
NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California manages the Spitzer mission for the agency’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The analysis of Spicer Science data through the Spitzer Data Archive at the Infrared Science Archive at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) at Caltech is being carried out by the science community. Science works were conducted at the Spitzer Science Center at Open Caltech. The spacecraft’s operations were based at Lockheed Martin Space in Littleton, Colorado. Caltech manages the JPL for NASA.